Literature review chapter of 2000 words. The chapter should critically analyse existing literature that expounds on Black women’s discriminations, especially in the media and Film industry. The literature review should also explore data analysis research of the British industry. This chapter should take into consideration other research already done and included in the annotated bibliography
Type of assignment: Research paper
Crime scene investigation is the whole process of documenting the conditions at the scene of crime and collecting the available physical evidence that could shed light on the events that occurred during the act of crime and who did it. The main purpose of the crime scene investigation is to be able to bring the perpetrators of the crime to conviction. The aim of this paper is to underscore the processes and the procedure of conducting a crime scene investigation for a crime of murder.
Classification of Crime Scenes
Crime scenes are normally so inconsistent. There are no standard identification formulas for crime scenes. First, they can be classified in accordance to the locality of the original activity. In this situation, the first criminal activity is labeled as the primary scene crime while any other subsequent scene is labeled as the secondary crime scene. Neither of the two scenes is given due importance over the other. This is because crucial leads of the crime could be obtained from both cases.
Crime scene classifications can also be based on the size. In this instance, a macroscopic
crime scene usually consists of many crime scenes. For example the murder case herein
discussed may involve the victim being stabbed in the belly. The scene of the crime in this case may include the wounds inflicted by the machetes, the body of the victim and the ground on which the body of the victim was found lying on. On the other hand, the microscopic classification is more determined to focus on particular pieces of evidence that are there on the macroscopic crime scene. For instance, staying with same stabbed body, the microscopic crime scene investigation would dwell on the wound specifically.
Other types of classification might include the type and nature of crime committed the condition of the crime scene, the type of the criminal act that accompanied the scene and the location of the crime scene. Types of crime include robbery, murder, rape and homicide.
The Simplified Procedure
The first step is for the investigative officers to make entry onto the scene of the crime in a bid to secure it. The investigator would literally walk through to acquire the general feeling of the scene in an exercise of ensuring that everything is in order. At this point, the investigator would take on any potential evidence but would not touch anything. He or she would then proceed to document the scene by taking photographs and putting up demarcations. The documentation may include video capturing of specific events. Still nothing is touched at this stage. Next, the investigator would engage in very careful assessment of the scene by touching materials but not tampering with them like overturning. The evidence is then processed.
Crime Scene Processing Protocol (Documentation)
In order to obtain the much needed evidence, certain criteria must be followed in processing a crime. This is a very complicated and interwoven manifold undertaking job. Different crimes require different approaches in processing. This not withstanding, there exits some basic approaches to crimes investigation processing. The protocol usually involves interviews, examinations, photography, sketching and processing.
An investigator is required to interview the first person he or she finds at the scene of the
crime. The interviewee can also be the victim of the crime committed. This should give a pointer
to the exact event that took place, the nature of the crime that was committed and the manner in
which the crime was committed. Although the response to these questions may not be as accurate
as expected, they serve to build a foundation upon which to start an investigation. Examining the scene helps in confirming if the results of the interview are actually what is on the ground. It also helps to identify any further evidence that could be used as proof.
Through the scene examination, an investigator is able to get the general framework of the crime
and know both the entry and the exit points of the crime. Taking the pictorial view of the crime scene is the third step in conducting an investigation. This aims at providing an overview on the exact nature of things in the exact way and manner in which they appear at the scene and in essence identifying any possible evidence. Photos for the overall views and the items of evidence are the two categories on which photos are taken (Domnauer 113).
Sketching the crime scene is usually the fourth step in the protocol. This involves the drawing of a rough sketch cover the cover the exact position the murder victim laid before being collected. This is then followed by the processing stage. The scene is processed for the both testimonial and the physical evidence (Baldwin 1). The main objective for the above procedures is to acquire the information that would be used to identify the suspect of murder. Therefore the use of the above acquired information for the criminal investigation ensues.
Collection and Preservation of Evidence
This is a very important procedure of investigation as it ensures that no evidence is lost or contaminated for the sake of the credibility of the investigations. Although there are no standard criteria for the collection of the evidence, some evidence that seem crucial and sensitive in nature is accorded some priority. Evidences that is fragile, transient or those that are likely to disappear easily must first be collected. Because of the nature of crime, some types of evidence might require relocation. In such an event documentation follows forthwith (Evans and French 57).
Use of the Information from the Physical Evidence in Criminal Investigation
The crime scene investigation is normally aimed at identifying, collecting, storing, analyzing and reconstructing any physical evidence that is present at a crime scene. The examination of this collected physical evidence is conducted in a forensic laboratory and this forms the basis of the crime scene investigation. Some of the information includes the Information on the Corpus Delicti, Information on the Modus Operand and the Linkages of Persons, Scenes and the Objects. Information on the Corpus Delicti seeks to obtain the crucial specifics of the investigation while the Information on the Modus Operand is where perpetrators of specific crimes acquire some coded behavior which they use to commit subsequent crimes.
On the other hand, the linkages of persons, scenes and objects implies that relating victims of crime to scenes and the perpetrators in a criminal activity can accomplish a physical evidence.
Identification of the suspects is an important milestone in forensic examination of the evidence. The process involves recognition, detection, individualization and reconstruction. The first three steps are enough to help detect a suspect through the determining the source of a proof obtained from a physical evidence. Individualization is then enhanced through comparing the tests as used in fingerprint evidence (U.S Department of Justice 34).
In the case of murder, other unknown substances that are obtained at the scene of the crime are again subjected to the forensic laboratory tests to ascertain their nature. Some of the unknown substances might include drugs. In the reconstruction of a crime, the manner in which the event of murder occurred or was performed forms the basis of the investigations. At this point, the motivation behind the killing or the identity of the murderer is not normally taken into great considerations.
Crime Scene Management
Highly competent and specially trained personnel are concerned in managing a crime scene. Managing a crimes scene involves managing the information, manpower, technology and the logistics. This must be done with a lot of accuracy and emphasis in order to accomplish credible results after the investigations (Miller 26).
As much as crime scene investigation plays an important role in bringing the perpetrators of criminal activities to book, they must be conducted competently and with the latest technology. The use of the scientific scene technology ensures thorough and highly upgraded investigation accomplished. It should however not be entirely relied on since it can be prone to errors.
Baldwin, Hayden B. Crime Scene Processing Protocol. Illinois State Police. Accessed:
<http://www.feinc.net/cs-proc.htm>. on n.d. Web. 12
Domnauer, Teresa. Crime Scene Investigation. North Carolina: Carson-Dellosa Publishing,
Evans, Colin and John L French. Crime Scene Investigation. New York: Chelsea House, 2009.
Miller, Marilyn T. Crime Scene Investigation. Accessed on:
<http://www.bios.niu.edu/naples/geol570/CrimeSceneInvestigation.pdf>. on. 12 March
2012 Web. 2010
U.S Department of Justice. Crime Scene Investigation.. a Guide for Law Enforcement.
<https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/178280.pdf>. 1999 Web. 12