Topic: Career progression barriers for women in academia

• About 10 pages added to the 5 emergent categories (2pages for each category)
• 3 pages on identity of the women as a discourse using Feminist post-structural discourse analysis.
• 4 pages each for both discourses (religion and culture)
Please note that these need to be linked to the literature and theoretical framework- African Feminism.

Chapter 4- Findings
This section identifies and discusses emergent and dominant discourses that form the decision women academics make in progressing to the peak of their careers. By recounting the experiences of the women from the interviews, there is a focus on the personal and political in their careers. Baxter (2002), noted that talk always works within, embody and re-form broader discursive structures, relations and process. In agreement is Thompson et. al (2017, p. 98) who commented that “discourses and voiced experiences can be understood as complementary rather than oppositional, with experience being inextricably linked to material political conditions”.

I adopted an in-depth interview method to explore various discourses. To do this, I started with establishing what motivated women towards academia, the factors that influenced the decision and a general overview of their aspirations. I explored their experiences in academia that has influenced their decisions and essentially choices including family and caring responsibilities, marriage, their need for mentors in their fields of research, societal and cultural expectations, economic and organisational factors and strategies employed. By exploring these key areas, I was able to identify one major discourse which I will examine in two categories. The discourse is Identity. I examine this by firstly exploring identity and its relationship to culture and secondly to religion. No other Nigerian study has offered in-depth insight into this and as such, this serves as a unique contribution to knowledge in the study of female professors and career progression in academia in Nigeria. I also review some categories which provide valuable insight into the discussion of Identity as a dominant discourse.

Mentoring and Networking
Mentoring and networking are some of the most important things that develop careers both among the male and females gender groups. However, this research finds that the women who manage to develop and grow within their very own careers have been pushed and supported/mentored by people that have managed to understand them and most of these being educated. According to Okurame (2008), Mentoring relationships often develop spontaneously based on proximity, hierarchical line of responsibility, ethnic affiliation, admiration, competence, shared values, and gender concerns. During the interviews, there was a consensus that mentoring can help to mitigate barriers to career success. For example, a respondent (R8) states that,

“Well the other thing I would have loved to include is that for the development of women especially in academia, I think there should be a mentorship program. When people are employed in academia, there should be a mentorship program. There should be some training program for women on how to manage work and life because people are just employed, and it is like they are thrown into the ocean on their own trying to struggle on their own”.

Moreover, Ekechukwu and Horsfall (2015), confirm that academic /peer mentoring may improve students and would-be-teachers retention rates and also help shape lives in a positive way in the Nigerian education system. Dubose (2017) also confirms that more studies have proven the lack of mentoring and exclusion of women in networking strings and unions as one of the barriers and hindrances to career development. A partcipant (P1) even stated,

“When I discovered that I was going to be stranded, I had to look at what my husband was doing, and he was the one who was now putting me through.”

The awareness of the need to progress led her to seek mentorship from her husband. African society lacks mentors for women to achieve some of their career goals, and it is evident because there is no support for women unless the men allow them. A respondent mentioned, “I had been discouraged from reading Nursing.” Another respondent’s(P3) view as to how women progress in their careers in Nigeria was that their very own president mentions that women are not meant to be in school but in the kitchen unless the man would support their wife in development. One respondent (P1) commented

Type of service: Dissertation services
Type of Assignment: Dissertation Chapter-Discussion
Subject: Business
Pages/words: 21/5775
Number of Sources: 20
Academic level: Doctoral
Paper format: Harvard
Line Spacing: Double
Language Style: UK English

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