Topic: Evaluate the personal and social responsibilities of living in a diverse world Journal


Note to the Students: Please participate in this journal ideas. You will be evaluated on SLO 5 to determine your personal and social responsibilities as you live your life in a diverse world.

(*SLO-5 – Evaluate the personal and social responsibilities of living in a diverse world.)

Remember: You are expected to answer the journal questions to show how much personal and social sense of responsibilities you have in relation to others. Please do your best in answering the questions.


1. Textbook – MELCHERT CH. 16-20 – Modern Period of Philosophy — Descartes, Locke, Hume, Berkeley, and Kant.

2. LECTURE NOTES: attached below.

3. Supplement Reading: Epistemology Readings:

4. Video Resources:

Descartes’ Epistemology:

Locke and Berkeley Epistemology:

Hume’s Epistemology:

Kant’s Synthesis:Kant’s Epistemology:

5. Infographics: Epistemological Ideas Inforgraphics by Coquilla

Guide Questions for Journal Ideas:


1. Discuss the Method of Doubt of Descartes? Explain its personal and social relevance of the method of doubt in your life? Relate it to your experience.

2. Discuss how Descartes achieved the “indubitable truth,” the Truth that cannot be doubted again. Use notes to discuss the two meditations? Meditation 2 – “I think, therefore, I am” and Meditation 3 on “God existence.” Relate the social relevance to


1. Discuss Locke‚Äôs empiricist view, like the “Tabula Rasa” view of the mind? Is knowing always associated with experience? Relate the personal and social relevance in this empiricist view in saying, that we need to encounter something in order to know? or in saying, “to see is to believe.”

2. Explain the following in John Locke’s philosophy: first, Locke’s active role of the objects known; second, Locke’s understanding of “representationalism”? What makes him an empiricist?


1. Discuss Hume’s basis of certitude of knowledge? Compare Impression vs Ideas? Explain why Hume argues that impression provided vivid and forceful experience, hence a certain source of knowledge. Discuss the personal and social importance of the role of impression in knowing the certitude of truth?

2. Discuss why Humer asserts that Matters of fact as product of impression is not reliable at the end. Relate this argument in his understanding of synthetic statement?


1. Describe Berkeley’s dialogue: MIND VS MATTER represented by Philonous vs Hylas? What is the argument about? What is Berkeley’s view about existence?

2. Explain Berkeley’s epistemological argument: TO BE IS TO BE PERCEIVED? Who is the perceiving subject for Berkeley? Is this limited to human perceiving subject? Explain? Discuss the personal and social relevance of this theory of knowledge: TO BE IS TO BE PERCEIVED? Do I need to have somebody to watch me for me to be continually exists?


1. Explain Kant’s epistemological goal? What kind of knowledge does Kant want to establish?

2. Explain the rationalist side of Kant’s philosophy and his empiricist view of knowing? What makes Kant’s epistemology as a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism? What is the personal and social relevance of this concept in finding the truth? Do we need both the subject and object in knowing then?

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