Topic: Gender inequality and career progression: case study of female officers in the Nigeria Police Force.

  1. Introduction and Background
    Globally, one of the most debated issues in the workplace is discrimination, and there have been in numerous findings on and strong charges against discrimination (Urther, 2016). Some reports indicate that gender bias has become a common occurrence in most developing countries such as Brazil, Nigeria, South Africa and India; although the numbers may be less in comparison to those in least developed countries like Uganda and Ethiopia (Diehl & Dzubinski , 2017). Despite the number of reported cases and findings in non-governmental and governmental institutions, the issues of gender discrimination is still beyond control (ADP report, 2018).
    Gender discrimination is explained to include “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, human rights and fundamental freedom in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other aspects of life.” (CEDAW, 2017).
    Martin (1980), in her now classic work on women and policing, asserts that the Police occupational subculture is male-dominated, and women are therefore in an inferior role within the occupation. Gender discrimination is not a function of the occupational subculture per se, but rather is the manifestation of specific values contained within the subculture (McKinsey, 2017). Martin (1980) maintain that rather than simply assimilated into the male-dominated subculture, women are forced to choose a role identity that falls along a continuum from Policewomen (gender suppression) to policewoman (gender identity). The discriminatory forms are further outlined in second edition of the police act and regulations. The discriminatory laws are found in section 42(3). section 118(g) and section 124 and it says:

“(i) Married women are disqualified from enlistment into the NPF
(ii) Women are compelled to stay 2 years on the job after enlistment
before marriage and are required to apply for approval to marry and
the fiancé subjected to investigation and approval.
(iii) Discrimination against female officers by prescribing limited training
and restricted sphere of posting for Policewomen.”

The history of Nigeria Police force can be traced to the British Colonial administration in 1861, known as a Consular protection Force based in Lagos. Later named Hausa Force because of the ethnicity of the men recruited. The colonial masters expanded their reach to the east and north for coverage, but in this stretch, women were not employed (Annan-Yao, 1998).
Policing globally, Nigeria inclusive is seen as a “man’s job”. This is evident from the fact that in most countries of the world, the representation of women in police personnel is poor (Diehl and Dzubinski, 2016). Statistics show that Australia has 29.9 percent of women in its police service, and South Africa with 29 percent, are among the world’s exception in this respect but the exceptional low number of women elsewhere testify to significant barriers to women’s access to police work and to problems with retention of female staff once employed (Aluko, 2011). The Nigeria Police force like many other countries in the world is not only dominated by men, but modelled as a masculine institution (Prenzler and Sinclair, 2013). This perception has great implications as the Nigeria Police force continues to have distressing records of gender abuses. It is postulated that Women often bring specific skills and strengths to police work such as the ability to disperse potentially violent situation and utilize good communication skills to curtail the use of force (Susan et al, 2019).

Type of service: Dissertation services
Type of Assignment: Dissertation
Subject: Business
Pages/words: 55/15000
Number of Sources: 800
Academic level: Doctoral
Paper format: Harvard
Line Spacing: Double
Language Style: UK English

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