- What is dark matter? What is the evidence for dark matter?

Explain. - Describe each of the three major questions left unanswered by

the Big Bang theory without inflation, and explain how inflation

answers each of them. - Make a list of the major eras in the history of the universe,

summarizing the important events thought to have occurred

during each era. - Based on the results from the Planck satellite, describe in

percentages the overall composition of the universe. How is this

data measured? - (Problem Solving): From laboratory measurements, we know that a particular

spectral line formed by hydrogen appears at rest wavelength of 121.6nm. The

spectrum of a particular star shows the same hydrogen line appearing at a

wavelength of 120.5nm. Calculate the radial velocity. V= (λmeasured – λreference/λreference )

x c, where c = 3.0 x 108 m/s (speed of light) - This graph below shows how the average distances between galaxies changes

with time in the four models for the universe, and also shows data points measured

from white dwarf supernovae. What was the data telling us about each of the

models? Which model fits our current understanding of the expansion rate of the

Universe? - What defines the habitable zone around a star? Which worlds in

our solar system seems to be potentially habitable, and why? - (Problem Solving): What is Hubble’s Law? If you were given a value of Ho=

55.4 km/s/Mpc, what would the estimated age of the Universe be? (Hint: Hubble’s

Law Lab, page 417, TSBT textbook).

Use this diagram to answer question 9 below. - These diagrams represent four possible models for the universe. Each model

shows how the size of the observable universe changes with time, with the

Recollapsing Universe having the youngest age. Describe the difference between

the Recollapsing, Critical, and Coasting Universe in terms of the amount of dark

matter, matter density vs. the critical density and the geometrical shape of the

universe with each model. What is the fate of our Universe?

Use this diagram to answer question 10 below. - The formulas below are to be used for the following problem.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Emitted power = σT4 watt/m2

σ = 5.7 x 10-8 w/m2 x K4

Wein’s Law: λmax ~ 2,900,000/T nm

(Problem Solving): Consider that the Cosmic Background Radiation has a

temperature of 2.735 K, what is its wavelength of peak intensity? (Units:mm).

This is evidence that the CMB exist. What do the little squares represent in the

CMB? - At what wavelengths do Earth’s atmosphere completely absorb

visible light? What would then happen to the surface

temperature if all the visible light was absorbed? Would life be

sustainable? Use the diagram below to explain your answer.

Use this diagram to answer question 12 below.

- Explain why current theories can’t describe what happened

during the Planck era. What does the head of the snake in the

Cosmic Uroboros swallowing its tail represent? - (Problem Solving): Calculate the mass, in Msun, of a galaxy

cluster that has an average galactic speed of 970 km/s and a

diameter of 8.5 Mpc using the Orbital Velocity Law. - (Short answer): What wrong with this picture?

Many science fiction stories have imagined the galaxy divided

into a series of empires, each having arisen from a different

civilization on a different world, that hold each other at bay

because they are all at about the same level of military

technology. Is this a realistic scenario? Explain - What is the cosmological Principle? Use the New Universe and

the Human Future online textbook as a guide for your answer. - Earth is an unusually suitable planet for complex life vs.

extrasolar planets, why? (ref. chapter 8 of your online textbook) - What is dark energy? How do we know of its existence?
- What is the Drake equation? Define each of its factors, and

describe the current state of understanding about the potential

values of each factor. - (Problem Solving): Using the long version of the Drake

Equation: N = RfsfpneflfifcL, calculate the number of civilizations

with whom we could potentially communicate given the variables

below. What does the Drake Equation tell us?

• R = 10 stars/year

• fs = 0.1

• fp = 0.1

• ne= 5

• fl = 1

• fi = 10-2

• fc = 1

• L = 106 yrs - What are Dr. J’s favorite beverages?

a) beer

b) soda

c) coffee

d) French Martinis and Canvas Chardonnay from the Napa

Valley

Please attach your essay. This represents a possibility of a total of 30 points

on your final exam depending on the grade received from the original draft.

All corrections made to the final essay will receive half of the points back. If

you do not make corrections, you will receive the grade on the original draft

returned to you.

Type of service-Academic paper writing

Type of assignment-Coursework

Subject-Astronomy

Pages / words-5 / 1375

Academic level-Sophomore (College 2nd year)

Paper format-MLA

Line spacing-Double

Language style-US English