Research designs can be classified by the approach used to gather primary data. There are two alternatives: We can observe conditions, behavior, events, people, or processes, or we can
communicate with people about various topics, including participants’ attitudes, motivations,
intentions, and expectations.
The communication approach involves surveying or interviewing people and recording their responses for analysis. The goal of the survey is to derive comparable data across subsets of the chosen sample, so that similarities and differences can be found. All communication research has some error. It is important to understand the various sources of error, in order to avoid or diminish them.
Experiments are studies involving intervention by the researcher beyond that required for measurement. The usual intervention is to manipulate some variable in a setting and observe how it affects the subjects being studied (e.g., people or physical entities). The researcher manipulates the independent or explanatory variable and then observes whether the hypothesized dependent variable is affected by the intervention.
In a well-executed experiment, researchers must complete a series of activities to carry out their craft successfully. It takes resourcefulness and creativity to make the experiment live up to its potential. There are seven activities the researcher must accomplish to make the endeavor successful: These are 1) Select relevant variables. 2) Specify the level(s) of the treatment. 3) Control the experimental environment. 4) Choose the experimental design. 5) Select and assign the subjects. 6) Pilot-test, revise, and test. 7) Analyze the data.
- Explain the process for selecting the appropriate and optimal communication approach.
- Describe the factors that affect participation in communication studies.
- Minimize the major sources of error in communication.
- Utilize the experimental method with an understanding of its advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain the functions and types of test markets.
- Study Chapters 9 and 10 of the text.
Educational Administration, 6th Edition
Concepts & Practices
Submit your responses to these questions in one WORD document. List the question first, and then your response.
Be sure to properly site your sources, both in-text and with a reference list at the conclusion. If you use an online source to support your answers, you must provide a properly formatted link to the source. You should use APA citation format and make sure your sources are credible. In
most cases, your responses should be no more than 700 words.
- How do environmental factors affect response rates in personal interviews? How can we overcome these environmental problems?
- Assume you are planning to interview shoppers in a shopping mall about their views on increased food prices and what the federal government should do about them. In what different ways might you try to motivate shoppers to cooperate in your survey?
- You decide to take a telephone survey of 40 families in the 721-exchange area. You want an excellent representation of all subscribers in the exchange area. Explain how you will carry out this study.
- What ethical problems do you see in conducting experiments with human subjects?
- A pharmaceuticals manufacturer is testing a drug developed to treat cancer. During the7final stages of development the drug’s effectiveness is being tested on individuals for different (1) dosage conditions and (2) age groups. One of the problems is patient mortality during experimentation. Justify your design recommendations through a comparison of alternatives and in terms of external and internal validity.
- Recommend the appropriate design for the experiment.
- Explain the use of control groups, blinds, and double blinds if you recommend them.
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Type of assignment-Research Paper
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