# Topic: multinational investment and finance

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Details of calculations are required.
Question 1. Capital markets (30 marks in total)
a) Historical nominal returns for Coca-Cola have been 8% and -20%. The nominal returns for the market index S&P500 over the same periods were -15% and 28%. Calculate the beta for Coca-cola. (5
marks)
b) The covariance between stocks A and B is 0.0014, standard deviation of stock A is 0.032, and
standard deviation of stock B is 0.044. Which of the following is the most appropriate to depict the
risk-return characteristics of a portfolio consisting of only stocks A and B, and explain why? (5 marks)

(A) (B) (C)
c) Assume that using the Security Market Line (SML) the required rate of return (RA) on stock A is found
to be half of the required return (RB) on stock B. The risk-free rate (Rf) is one-fourth of the required
return on A. Return on market portfolio is denoted by RM. Find the ratio of beta of A (A) to beta of B
(B). (10 marks)
d) Assume that the short-term risk-free rate is 3%, the market index S&P500 is expected to pay
returns of 15% with the standard deviation equal to 20%. Asset A pays on average 5%, has standard
deviation equal to 20% and is NOT correlated with the S&P500. Asset B pays on average 8%, also has
standard deviation equal to 20% and has correlation of 0.5 with the S&P500. Determine whether
asset A and B are overvalued or undervalued, and explain why. (10 marks)
(Hint: Beta of asset i (𝛽𝑖) =
𝜎𝑖𝜌𝑖𝑀
𝜎𝑀
, where 𝜎𝑖
,𝜎𝑀 are standard deviations of asset i and market
portfolio, 𝜌𝑖𝑀 is the correlation between asset i and the market portfolio)
Question 2. Foreign exchange markets (35 marks in total)
Statoil, the national company in Norway, is a large, sophisticated, and active participant in both the
currency and petrochemical markets. Although it is a Norwegian company, because it operates within
the global oil market, it considers the U.S. dollar (\$), rather than the Norwegian krone (Nok), as its
functional currency. Ari Karlsen is a currency trading strategist for Statoil. Answer the following two
independent questions a) and b):
a) Statoil sold 1 million barrels of crude oil to the Norwegian petrol station chain, Circle K, today
for 120 Nok per barrel (Nok denotes the Norwegian Krone). Statoil expects to receive the full
payments from Circle K in 3 months’ time when the crude oil is delivered to Circle K’s facilities
in Norway. Statoil is informed that Circle K will pay for the oil in Norwegian Krone. Ari is asked
by the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) about the strategy to reduce the uncertainty around the
expected payment from Circle K. Ari is faced with the following market rates:
Spot exchange Rate Nok 6.0312/\$
3-month forward rate Nok 6.0186/\$
U.S. dollar 3-month interest rate 5%
Norwegian Krone 3-month interest rate 4.45%
Based on the above information, what hedging strategy should Ari advise the CFO that works the best
for Statoil? Explain why Ari should choose such hedging strategy. How much U.S. dollar will Statoil
receive at the end of 3 months by using this hedging strategy? (20 marks)
b) In a daily meeting, the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) gave Ari the following table of market rates
Spot exchange rate: Yen 106/\$
U.S. dollar interest rate per annum 10%
Japanese Yen interest rate per annum 6%
and told Ari that the company’s financial analyst expected the Japanese Yen to depreciate against the
U.S. dollar by 3.46% in 90 days. Assume there are 360 days in a year, and all interest rates are simple
interest rates. If the financial analyst’s prediction about the US dollar and Japanese Yen turned out to
be true:
b.1) What would the spot exchange rate (Yen/\$) be in 90 days? (5 marks)
b.2) Would Ari make a profit by borrowing 1 million US dollar and investing in the money markets?
If yes, how much profit would Ari realize in 90 days?
If no, explain why. (10 marks)
Question 3. Bond (35 marks in total)
Consider a bank with the following balance sheet (M means million):
Assets Value Duration of the Asset Convexity of the Asset
5yr bond bought at a yield of 3.4%
(lending money)
\$550M 4.562 12.026
12yr bond bought at a yield of 4%
(lending money)
\$800M 9.453 53.565
Liabilities Value Duration of the Liability Convexity of the Liability
2yr bond sold at a yield of 2.4%
(borrowing money)
\$300M 1.941 2.384
4yr bond sold at a yield of 2.8%
(borrowing money)
\$500M 3.759 8.206
a) Calculate the equity (total asset – total liability) to asset ratio of the bank
(Hint: equity to asset ratio = total equity/total asset) (2 marks)
b) Calculate the duration and convexity of the both asset and liability sides; (8 marks)
c) If the interest rates go up by 1%, using the duration and convexity rule to determine the net
worth of the bank and the equity to asset ratio; (10 marks)
d) In c)’s scenario, to maintain the equity to asset ratio at 40% which is required by the regulation,
the bank decides to raise cash (zero duration and zero convexity) from the equity holders.
How much cash does the bank need to raise? (10 marks)
e) Do you agree with the following statement? Explain why. (5 marks)
“The information about a bond’s duration and convexity adjustment is sufficient to quantify
interest rate risk exposure.”

Type of assignment-Coursework
Subject-Accounting
Pages / words-5 / 1200
Paper format-MLA
Line spacing-Double
Language style-UK English