Topic: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

The U-Boat Menace and War in Africa
D. [David Lloyd George] also saw Gen. Haig, & had a very serious
talk with him. He made it quite plain that the time had come when
he was going to assert himself, & if necessary let the public know the
truth about the soldiers & their strategy.
—Diary of Frances Stevenson, November 5, 1917
Allied battlefield frustrations in 1917 led to the creation of new
forms of civilian control over the war effort. Before 1917, Allied
generals had largely been able to argue that, given their specialized
knowledge, they, and only they, could make the military decisions
necessary to obtain victory. After the bloodletting of 1915–1916
and the tremendous defeats of 1917, however, the generals lost the
monopoly of military decision-making that they had theretofore
possessed. In Britain and France, and to a lesser extent in Italy as
well, civilians came to share important roles with the military and
even began to have an effect on the formerly military preserves of
operations and strategy. Although the growth of civilian authority
created friction between the “frocks” (politicians) and the “brass
hats” (generals), it allowed for the expertise of the civilians to
complement that of the military. The result was a dynamic, if occasionally confrontational, relationship that helped the Allies win
the war.
In Germany, no such system developed. Instead, the military
came to assume greater and greater power over all elements of
German society. By late 1917, Hindenburg and Ludendorff had
become virtual dictators over Germany and the lands under German occupation. Intelligent and industrious civilians such as Wal

Type of services: Academic paper writing
Type of assignment: Essay
Subject: History
Pages / words: 1/275
Number of sources: 2
Academic level: Junior(College 3rd year)
Paper format: APA
Line Spacing: Double
Language style: US English

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